CBSE Syllabus of Class 12th PHYSICS 2022-2023:

CBSE Physics 12th is an advanced course that delves deeper into the fundamental principles and concepts of physics. The course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of topics such as electromagnetism, optics, thermodynamics, and modern physics. It also includes practical experiments to help students develop laboratory skills and reinforce theoretical concepts. By studying CBSE Physics 12th, students will gain a solid foundation in physics, which is essential for pursuing higher education and careers in fields such as engineering, research, and technology.



No. of Periods











Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields


Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance


Current Electricity




Chapter–3: Current Electricity


Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism







Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism


Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter


Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents




Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction


Chapter–7: Alternating Current


Electromagnetic Waves







Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves






Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments


Chapter–10: Wave Optics


Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter







Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter


Atoms and Nuclei




Chapter–12: Atoms


Chapter–13: Nuclei


Electronic Devices







Chapter–14: Semiconductor                                       Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits




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Download CBSE Class 12th Physics Syllabus

UNIT-I    Electrostatics     

Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields  

Electric charges, Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two- point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).  

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance  

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two-point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor (no derivation, formulae only).  

Unit II: Current Electricity                    

Chapter–3: Current Electricity  

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, temperature dependence of resistance, Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s rules, Wheatstone bridge.  

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism                      

Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism  

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.   Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.   Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight solenoid (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, moving coil galvanometer- its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.  

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter  

Bar magnet, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis (qualitative treatment only), torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field lines. Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances with examples, Magnetization of materials, effect of temperature on magnetic properties.  

Unit IV:  Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents   

Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction Electromagnetic induction;

Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Self and mutual induction. Chapter–7: Alternating Current   Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit (phasors only), resonance, power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current.

Unit V:  Electromagnetic waves                                

8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative idea only). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics                    

Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism. Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.  

Chapter–10: Wave Optics  

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width (No derivation final expression only), coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maxima (qualitative treatment only).

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter                     

Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Experimental study of photoelectric effect   Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation.

Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei     

Chapter–12: Atoms  

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model of hydrogen atom, Expression for radius of nth possible orbit, velocity and energy of electron in his orbit, of hydrogen line spectra (qualitative treatment only).  

Chapter–13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, nuclear force   Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.  

Unit IX: Electronic Devices                 

Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors- p and n type, p-n junction Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, application of junction diode -diode as a rectifier.


Overall, 12th  Cbse grade physics is an important and fascinating subject that can help students develop a deeper understanding of the physical world and the laws that govern it. . To succeed in 12th grade physics, students should be comfortable with mathematical calculations, be able to visualize abstract concepts, and have a curiosity to explore the natural world.


1.What is the format of the CBSE Physics 12th exam?

Answer: The CBSE Physics 12th exam consists of two parts – theory and practical. The theory part is a written exam of 70 marks, and the practical part is a lab-based exam of 30 marks.

2.What are some important topics to focus on for the CBSE Physics 12th exam?

Answer: Some important topics to focus on for the CBSE Physics 12th exam include electromagnetic waves, optics, modern physics, thermodynamics, electrostatics, current electricity, and magnetism.

 3.What is the passing marks for CBSE Physics 12th?

Answer: The passing marks for CBSE Physics 12th are 33% of the total marks, which is 23 out of 70 marks in the theory exam and 10 out of 30 marks in the practical exam.

4.Can I pursue higher education in physics after completing CBSE Physics 12th?

Answer: Yes, you can pursue higher education in physics after completing CBSE Physics 12th. Some popular options include Bachelor’s degree in Physics, Master’s degree in Physics, or research-oriented programs such as PhD in Physics.

5.     What are the career options after completing CBSE Physics 12th?

Answer: After completing CBSE Physics 12th, you can pursue a variety of career options such as physicist, research scientist, engineer, astronomer, data analyst, and more. With a deeper understanding of physics, students can apply their knowledge to solve real-world problems and contribute to scientific advancements in the future.

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