CBSE Syllabus of Class 12th Biology 2022-2023:

In the class 12th CBSE curriculum, students will learn about the fundamental principles of biology, including the organization of life, basic biochemical processes, and the diversity of living organisms. They will also study the importance of biodiversity and conservation of natural resources, as well as the application of biotechnology in various fields.

The study of biology in class 12th CBSE involves theoretical knowledge as well as practical laboratory work. Students will conduct experiments and gain hands-on experience with various laboratory techniques, including microscopy and DNA analysis.










Genetics and Evolution



Biology and Human Welfare



Biotechnology and its Applications



Ecology and Environment





Download CBSE Syllabus of Class 12th Biology

Unit-1 Reproduction

Chapter-1:Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-2: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis

-spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-3: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-2 Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-4: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy;

elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Chapter-5: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene

expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-6: Evolution

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit- 3Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-7: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse. 

Chapter-8: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation andmicrobes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use. 

Unit-4 Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-9: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-10: Biotechnology and its Applications

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents. 

Unit-5 Ecology and Environment

Chapter-11: Organisms and Populations

Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)

Chapter-12: Ecosystem

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)

Chapter-13: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.


In conclusion, Biology in 12th Science is a fascinating subject that provides a comprehensive understanding of living organisms and their interactions with each other and the environment. The subject covers a wide range of topics, including genetics, evolution, human and plant physiology, ecology, and biotechnology.


1.What are the topics covered in 12th Science Biology?

The topics covered in 12th Science Biology may vary depending on the board or education system. Generally, the subjects covered include genetics and evolution, human physiology, ecology, plant physiology, and biotechnology.

2.How can I prepare for 12th Science Biology exams ?

To prepare for 12th Science Biology exams, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the concepts and topics covered in the syllabus. Students should make a study plan, revise regularly, solve sample papers, and practice previous years’ question papers. They should also make use of textbooks, reference books, and online resources.

3.What are the career options after completing 12th Science Biology?

After completing 12th Science Biology, students can pursue careers in various fields such as medicine, dentistry, veterinary science, biotechnology, environmental science, microbiology, biochemistry, and genetics.

4.What is the importance of studying Biology in 12th Science?

Studying Biology in 12th Science is important because it helps students understand the principles of life and the diversity of living organisms. It also provides a strong foundation for pursuing careers in science and related fields. Furthermore, studying Biology in 12th Science can help students appreciate the importance of biodiversity and the need for conservation of natural resources.

Download CBSE Class 12th Biology Pdf from here



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